Validade dos marcadores tumorais

Autores

  • Maria Inez Pordeus Gadelha Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA). Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brasil

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.32635/2176-9745.RBC.1998v44n3.2813

Palavras-chave:

Marcadores Tumorais

Resumo

Considerando-se o número crescente dos chamados marcadores tumorais e a sua incorporação sistemática à prática médica, procedeu-se a um levantamento, por meio de Medline® 1995, na Biblioteca Central do Instituto Nacional de Câncer - INCA, e revisão de 95 resumos de trabalhos publicados de 1995 a abril de 1997. Verificou-se que a validade dos marcadores é maior para o diagnóstico patológico de alguns tipos tumorais e determinação de alguns fatores prognósticos; que poucos são os de real utilidade clínica, seja para prevenção, diagnóstico ou prognóstico, vez que a maioria deles só alcança significância quando a doença já provoca algum sinal ou sintoma; que a maioria das referências correspondem, a rigor, a trabalhos repetidos, que avaliam os mesmos marcadores, embora em diferentes tumores; e que há trabalhos que se referem a poucos casos, quando não pouquíssimos, e cujos resultados tomam-se, por isso, inconsistentes. Neste artigo, os marcadores tumorais são classificados por tipos (genes, expressões genéticas, substâncias circulantes, substâncias celulares, receptores da membrana celular e índices de proliferação tumoral) e por finalidades (prevenção, detecção, diagnóstico, estadiamento, monitoração terapêutica, seguimento pós-tratamento e prognóstico) e são correlacionados com o(s) tumor(es) em que foram pesquisados. Apresentam-se três grupos de critérios de validação (estatísticos, biomédicos e por finalidades) e resume-se, a partir também de mais 16 outras referências bibliográficas, a utilidade de marcadores dos cânceres de mama [ADN, fração de Fase S, índice de ADN, C-erbB-2 (HER-2/neu), P53, CAT-D, CA15.3 e CEA - sem validade; marcadores tumorais hormonais - úteis para a indicação de hormonioterapia adjuvante ou paliativa]; colorretal [LASA, CA 19.9, índice de ADN, fração de Fase S, p53 e ras - sem validade; CEA-com validade para estadiamento e planejamento cirúrgico, e para seguimento pós-operatório (dosagem seriada a cada 2-3 meses por 2 anos, se houve suspeita de metástase hepática em estádios cirúrgicos II e III)] e de próstata (PSA com utilidade para a detecção, mas associado ao toque retal, em homens acima de 40-50 anos, como indicativos da necessidade de exames mais acurados, e para o seguimento dos casos tratados). E inquestionável a utilidade da dosagem de alfa-feto-proteína (aFP) e da gonadotrofina coriônica (hCG), para o estadiamento, tratamento, avaliação da resposta terapêutica e seguimento dos casos tratados de tumores testiculares (aFP e hCG) e de neoplasia trofoblástica gestacional (hCG). Também inquestionável é o papel da identificação dos marcadores de diferenciação celular no diagnóstico patológico de leucemias e linfomas. Os dilemas evidenciados a partir deste estudo referem-se a cinco binômios: 1) ausência de sinal ou sintoma versus positividade de marcador tumoral; 2) detecção de recidiva assintomática versus a qualidade e a quantidade da sobrevida do indivíduo; 3) natureza da causa versus aumento do marcador; 4) exame falso-positivo versus tratamento; e 5) baixo risco de evolução de neoplasia detectada versus tratamento. Conclui-se que, exceto pelos marcadores de validade estabelecida para o diagnóstico, o seguimento do tratamento ou o prognóstico dos casos de alguns cânceres, o médico precisa, além de conhecer os marcadores tumorais e suas siglas, saber os limites das suas indicações e ter opinião, crítica e método na sua utilização.

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2022-09-26

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Gadelha MIP. Validade dos marcadores tumorais . Rev. Bras. Cancerol. [Internet]. 26º de setembro de 2022 [citado 1º de fevereiro de 2023];44(3):211-24. Disponível em: https://rbc.inca.gov.br/index.php/revista/article/view/2813

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